DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.


    According to Ronald Sandler in, Ethics and Emerging Technologies, NGO's or Non Governmental Organizations, as an example, "avocate for premarket regulatory approval for all new industrial chemicals... whereas industry often advocate for post market monitoring and enforcement instead"(pg. 17) The same author in the same book also points out the challanges NGO's such as One Lap Top Per Child had with designing a laptop with a low budget and stringent requirements such as 12 volt power recharge, and no hard drives. Producing a laptop around one hundred dollars each, also able to withstand the elements, and remote access.(pg. 8) 

    Mr. Sandler also talks about children and many areas they are in danger. Chapter 8 talks about children and selection into genetic engineering. Such advances allow to select the sex of the baby, and screen for diseases. Perhaps in the future we can even select hair color, eye color, and other attributes. The Chapter discussed the ethics involved with such research. Could genetic research benefit only a select few, thus promoting discrimination and hatred? Also could sex selection result in harm to offspring or society?(pg. 95) Chapter 7 is devoted to this topic.

    Authors Karen Mingst, and Ivan Arreguin-Toft, in Essentials of International Relations, explain who NGO's are in chapter 7. "NGO's are generally private, voluntary organizations whose members are individuals or associations that come together to achieve a common purpose, often oriented to a public good."(pg. 233) NGO's are very diverse, and have even led to "alphebet soup of acronyms" these include; "GONGOs (government-organized NGOs), BINGOs (business and industry NGOs), DONGOs (donor-organized NGOs), and ONGOs (operational NGOs), to name a few."(pg. 234) Also according to the authors NGOs became focused with tasks in the 1990s, as well with the rise of global communications NGOs were able to better communicate with each other and their consituants. (pg. 234)

    Karen and Ivan also explain how NGOs helped to end slavery in the 1800s, and how the Red Cross fought for "humanitarian treatment of soldiers" International labor unions also began fighting for better work conditions. During the 1970s NGOs began networking and fighting many issues such as acid rain, and ocean pollution. By the 1980s global warming became an issue, as well as AIDS epidemic. (pg. 234) Many topics such as the environment, population, women, and food; have been the focus of many cooperative organizations. "NGOs are also the primary actors at the grassroots level in mobilizing individuals to act."(pg. 235)

    NGOs also carry power according to Karen and Ivan. "NGOs rely on soft power, meaning credible information, expertise, and the moral authority that attracts the attention and admiration of governments and the public... They [NGOs] can participate at all levels, from policy formation, and decision making to implementation, if they choose. Yet they [NGOs] can also influence state behavior by initiating formal, legally binding action; pressuring authorities to impose sanctions; carrying out independent investigations; and linking issues together in ways that force some measure of compliance." (pg. 238) 

    As we can see NGOs while they do not collect taxes like states, depend greatly on private donations. NGOs are flexible and able to move resources internationally. NGOs can get involved in all stages of concern, and provide experts in their field not weighed down by political ideology or concerns that most states deal with on a daily basis. According to Mingst and Snyder, in Essential Readings in World Politics, NGOs follow the constructivist approach in international relations since the 1990s. (pg. 307) What makes NGOs and constructivism linked?

    Looking back at Karen and Ivan, in Essentials of International Relations, we find that constructivists use "discourse analysis to answer the foundational questions of international relations... constructivists analyze culture, norms, procedures, and social practices... they [constructivists] use texts, interviews, and archival material, and they [constructivists] research local practices... use multiple sets of data, they [constructivists] create thick description." (pg. 15) This mindset gives NGOs their credibility, dealing with the facts, without bias to factions or political ideologies. This is why NGOs get results, and are able to get resources where they are needed. Normally the lack of NGO success is the direct result of state interference.



DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.